Chalkida is the capital and the main port of the prefecture of Evia region of Central Greece.
It is built on both sides of the Strait of Evripos with a bit of lie on the island Evia and the other in Central Greece. In mainland side of the hill of Kanithou stands the castle of Karababa that along with the Bridge of Evripos the only change phenomenon of water direction every six hours and in between a stagnation Time (tide Evripos), are the most important features of. According to Census 2011 Halkida has a population 59 125 inhabitants.
Halkida, the two ports in Euripus, was one of the most active cities of ancient Greece. Created colonies from Thrace to Italy and Sicily. The current geographical and strategic position often caused her to fall in conquering aspirations of various forces in its historical path, but also an integral part of both empires of antiquity and the Middle Ages.
Prehistory and Antiquity
The present city of Halkida stretches on the small peninsula of central Evia and is as natural limits small hills, which lie to the north, east and south of the city. So it is located in a strategic position in every respect, and this contributes to the fact of the Strait of Evripos control. This fact had noticed the first residents of the city and tried to exploit it because it was almost certain that it would take the city power and wealth. The first traces of habitation city already found from the Paleolithic period, but the first significant settlement of which can be characterized as a small town was around 3000 BC at the beginning of the Neolithic Period. This first city of Halkida located on the northern outskirts of today in Manika area. This first city will live for a millennium and as revealed by archaeological excavations was a well organized city with large blocks, roads and houses that were arched or square ground floor or first floor, and had with sacred hearth, wells and pebbled floors. Along the way the other settlements developed around it seems to suggest the overall edge presented to the permanent residence and thus acquire the first competitors.
The existence of Halkida in Mycenaean times found only indirectly, but sporadic evidence, mainly through the Homeric epics, since Chalcedeans included in the famous “Nion Catalogue” having delivered 40 vessels. In the city geometrically years settle together and experiencing famous acne and together with Eretria are the two most important cities of Gujarat. Its inhabitants engaged in trade, pottery and metalwork. The name of the city of Halkida came from the presence of copper deposits in the region, which were and growth. According to another etymological version, the name of the city indicates the presence of copper processing laboratories but not deposits. In Donford Halkida named after the word copper or Calhoun, meaning porfyroucho shell, which the Phoenicians supplied purple. The development of the city leads consequently to an increase in population and eventually the colonization by establishing several major cities in the West, but also in Greece.
The same trend followed in ancient times with the strong element of colonization. The important fact, however, these years are not colonization, but the war of Lilantio field conducted between Halkida and Eretria. It is generally believed that this war was not a battle, but many followed and these helped the combatants and allies from other cities Helladic. Final winners in this war seems to have been the Chalcedeans.
In classical times Halkida helped in the common fight against the Persians with its participation in the Battle of Artemisium, Salamis and the battle of Plataea, while it seems that participated in the First Athenian Alliance. The attempt to detach from the Alliance resulted in the subjugation of the Athenians and installation Athenian cleruchs its territory. During the Peloponnesian War was an important military and naval base. The years that follow until 342 BC They are particularly troubled, when it created the “Common of Evia” and thus becomes an effort of stabilization situations. Capital in Common is the city of Halkida, but following many adventures as the appearance of the Macedonians.
Bust of Aristotle in Halkida
In the middle of the 4th century BC and after the unification of all Greek cities under the Macedonian power and until the Roman conquest period is full of conflicts, but this does not mean halting the city’s development and artistic progress. Characteristic is the fact that in 323 BC comes in Halkida Stageiritis the philosopher Aristotle to die next year at his mother’s house. Then during the Hellenistic era settlers from Halkida founded Halkida in Syria, at the command of Seleucus, from which settlers founded another Chalcis in Lebanon Valley, and another Halkida in Arabia.
200 BC The city was destroyed by the Roman general Gaius Soulpikio Galba and thus initiates the Roman occupation of Evia, while in 146 BC with the complete conquest of Greece by the Romans Halkida re-established, as was the case with other cities. The years of Roman rule the city are also in full years prosperity and progress for both the city of Halkida, and generally to Evia, which is permanent and unquestioned primacy.
Medieval and modern times
By the end of the Roman period and the entrance in the early Byzantine period the city becomes the first diocese under the jurisdiction of the bishop of Achaia, as administratively belongs in the province of Achaia. The period from the Byzantine period is characterized by the transfer of the city closer to the sea, in the current location, with important harbor that St. Stephen. The city was fortified again during the reign of Justinian, likely to face several enemy attacks. Thus, the city survived the Arab invasions of the 7th century. Halkida continued to be an important trading post throughout the Byzantine and post-Byzantine times, until it was destroyed by the Norman attacks in 1146 that were managed by Roger of Sicily.
In 1204, with the capture of Constantinople by the Crusaders, the Euboea was given as feud in Flemish knight Jacques d’Avenue (Jacques d ‘Avesnes) for a while, and later split into three parts and each was given a Lombard family knights of della Kartseri (Delle Carceri) and Pekorari (Pecorari). These were the renowned triarchs. The years of the Franks is chronic acne for the barony of Halkida as a result of expanded trade, and by the treatment of purple and operation of banking institutions of the Venetians. Gradually the power of Evia spent in Venice and bailo ruled island. After even recapture of Constantinople in 1261, the Latin patriarch of Constantinople moved to Halkida. During those years, as in 1470, the city passed to the Turks, remained in the hands of the main Venetian and were not few times suffered from pirates.
During the Turkish occupation due to its dominant position became headquarters Kapoudan Pasha and Pasaliki of Egripo was an administrative division that included almost all of mainland Greece. In that period as the 17th century about the wealth of Gujarat attracted installing this aghas, but also many times been and target pirate. In the late 17th century besieged Halkida by famous Venetian admiral Morosini, but to no avail. At the outbreak of the Greek revolution in 1821 and despite the fact that the island of Evia theater of many battles, the powerful Turkish forces on the island were not allowed the final release. Since the Turks finally acquitted by delivery of Halkida on April 7, 1833 and Karystos two days later to join the boundaries of the newly established Greek state.
The Karababa castle located on mainland side of town, on the hill called Fourka, in district Kanithou. Its location is strategic, as it controls the Strait of Evripos and the town of Halkida. The location of the Castle is identified by some scholars with the ancient city Kanithos as sporadically preserved traces of buildings and graves on the ground surface. The hill probably first fortified during the Roman period, but it is certain that he had not fortified the Byzantine period and during the Venetian period and the first centuries of Ottoman rule.
The fortress survives today was built by the Turks in 1684, in order to protect Chalkis from the Venetians. Designed by Venetian Gerolimo Galopo and architecture are more European and less Turkish, with oblong enclosure, oriented EW, with a rampart on the north side, three bastions and a large tower. The southern part of the wall is maintained in bad condition. Ancient architectural elements are walled in several parts of the enclosure. The more complex, hexagonal bastion on the east side, to Halkida. The ramparts maintained two Russian cannons in the 19th century. The only gate of the fortress located on the SE side of the wall, and around her have built military buildings. On the east wall of the enclosure, between the gate and the east tower, located spire, built on the site where the bell of the fortress was alert. The only well-preserved building within the precinct is a temple dedicated to the Prophet Elias, which dates back to 1895. The western end of the wall occupies eptaplefros tower, the majestic defensive construction of the fortress. The entrance to the tower is a narrow vaulted corridor, which reminds maze.
The fort was unsuccessfully besieged by Morosini in 1688 the Turks managed to retain ownership until the liberation of Greece, when he handed it over to the Greek state.
In Karababa castle lies the grave of writer John Skarimbas, who lived and worked in the town of Halkida.
In the Census of 2011 the actual population of the town of Halkida is 59 125 inhabitants. The urban complex of Halkida, which apart from Halkida includes New Artaki and Dew settlement has a population of 73.639 inhabitants. Finally, the wider urban area of Halkida, which since 2011 is the expanded municipality of Halkida, comprising the municipal units (and former municipalities) Halkida, Anthidonos, Avlida, Lilantion and Nea Artaki, The population of the new municipality is 102 223 inhabitants
As a service center Prefectural Halkida includes all the necessary infrastructure and services to outside the prefecture of Evia and pull sections of Viotia (Oinofyta / Thebes etc). Access to Halkida and generally in the prefecture of Evia is done through the industry of P.A.TH.E – Schimatari / Halkida resulting in High Bridge Halkidos (hanging) which, with a length of about 700 meters, connects Evia with Central Greece. Access to Halkida is also the old sliding bridge but Evripos due to increased traffic only used for commuting within the city. From Halkida start the two main axes of Evia is the E77 (Chalkida – Istiaia) and E44 (Chalkida – Aliveri – Kimi). Finally, access to Halkida done and by rail, with the line TRAINOSE Piraeus Chalkida.
Nearby Two Trees suburb of Halkida, with about 2,000 residents. [Citation pending] The Two Trees is a lowland village but a major part is in Vathrovouni hill. This settlement was named by two large trees near the PPC which is about 500 years old. In the Two Trees are the Tax Halkidos, PPC and 23rd Primary School Halkida and Training Center “Training”.