Evia is the second largest island and the sixth largest in the Mediterranean. The island is 3,654 square kilometers. and extends along the northeastern mainland of Central Greece, the Maliakos Bay to off the coast of Rafina, separated from it by the Euboean sea.
Its shape is oblong with flattened both ends and around this medium. Extends in the direction from northwest to southeast, having a total length of 180 km. And width ranging from 8 to 50 km. In the NW. separated from Fthiotida and Magnesia of Oreos by bus, while the south by the Evian K. separated from Boeotia and Attica. Through the Strait of Kafirea divided southeast of Andros. The north and northeast coasts bordering the Aegean Sea.
At the closest point to mainland Greece stands the capital and largest city of Halkida island, where there is one of the two links the island with mainland Greece, the old bridge of Halkida. Recently built and the high bridge of Halkida, total length of about 700 meters.
Geologically Evia is a continuation of Attica. Its terrain consists mainly of schist and presents many geological formations. Intense however seems to have been and volcanic activity during the Quaternary period of the Cenozoic era, they seceded from the mainland.
Key individual bays of Evia is the Strait of Evripos and north: the passengers, Lake and Edipsos, and south of Aliveri Karystos and the Aegean Kimi. Also along the Gujarat coast encountered numerous islands among which are Lihada, butterflies, Myrto, the Prasouda and the Mouse.
Generally the climate is temperate and healthy, which contributes to the abundant vegetation and natural beauty.
The island of Evia with Syros, a part of the Boeotian coast and surrounding islands are administered the regional section of Evia, which belongs to Central Greece. The regional section Evia has an area of 4,167 square kilometers. and a population of 210 815 inhabitants, according to Census 2011.
The Bronze Age Evia was inhabited from the ancient tribe of Avanton. Homer says that Avantes participated in the Trojan War on the side of the Achaeans. even states that had already established cities Chalkida, Eretria, Istiaia, Kirinthos, Dion, Karystos and Styra . During the great migrations in Greece the Avantes displaced by the Ionians. The Ionians of Euboea gradually divided into two powerful states in the north of Halkida and Eretria in the central part of the island. Further south, in the area of Mount Ochi they had settled Dryopes coming from the area which was the later years of Doris. Main city of Dryopes was Karystos. The cities of Evia in the 8th century BC They had grown into major commercial forces in the region. also famous for their ceramics. During this century the Euboeans began to colonize, initially in Chalkidiki and then in southern Italy, where they founded the first Greek colonies. First colony of Evia in Italy were Pithecussae on an island off the coast of Naples, few years after they founded on the opposite coast Kimi. Kimi was the basis for establishing new colonies, as was the Zagkli, Rhegium and Naxos. According to a widespread view, the Evian cities of Southern Italy spread their own alphabet in the area, which then evolved into the Latin alphabet. According to this view, the Evian cities used a variant of the Greek alphabet, called Evian or Halkidians alphabet, which had a similar shape to the current Latin
The eighth century BC It was the century in which Euboea reached the peak of its prosperity. The period of prosperity was terminated at the end of the 8th century, when the competition of two powerful member of the island led to the outbreak of war Lilantio. This war was one of the first great wars among the ancient Greek city and took Panhellenic dimensions. The warring Halkidians and Eretreieis alliance with other Greek cities. With Chalkidians allied Thessalians and Samos, while the Eretreieis Miletians. The date of this war is not currently known with precision. Placed at the end of the 8th century and early 7th. The war was inconclusive and caused massive damage in both cities. The outcome of the war was to weaken both cities and spend a period of decline. Their position as trading powers of the ancient world took Corinth, Megara, the cities of Ionia and Athens.
In the centuries that followed the Evian cities had weakened greatly, which was the result of Lilantio war, and the emergence of new trading powers in Greece. In 490 BC even the Persian fleet destroyed Eretria, which during the Ionian revolt had helped the Ionian cities and its former ally Miletus. At the time of Pericles, the Athenians won from Halkida and Istiaia installed in the city Athenian garrison. During this period, Evia was under the Athenian control, which allied during the Peloponnesian war. In the middle of the 4th century, after the battle of Chaeronea, the Euboeans came under the Macedonians, where they remained until the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC
Roman and Medieval period
The area of Evia in the Roman and medieval period was in decline until the Frankish period. During this period, Evia was given as feud in Flemish knight Jacques d ‘Avesnes, and then divided into three baronies (under Evia tertiles) and gradually passed to the Venetians, who held the island until 1470. That year the Euboea conquered the Ottomans.